Honestly? Not really. I know a lot of, if not all, of RWBY's characters are based off folklore/fairy tales/historic characters (fiction or otherwise), but for Argent? I never really gave it much thought of who he could be based off of. As it's stands, he's not seen in a favorable light in atlesian society due to his father turning traitor and escaping justice (plus he's the one responsible for Argent's missing arm). Sins of the father being passed to the son, the latter of whom who seeks to redeem his family name by finding his father one day and take him down.
Now that being said, I am open to ideas/suggestions of possible inspirations he could be based off of!